Tasawufka Iyo Deegaanka – Axmed Ibraahin Cawaale

Deegaanka iyo Tasawufka

Hordhac
Laba arrin ayaa go’aamiyay ama igu dhiirri geliyay in xiise ii galo hoos-u-dhugashada iyo wax-ka-ogaanshaha tasawufka.
Mid waxa uu ahaa buugga magaciisa la yidhaahdo The Forty Rules of Love oo ay qortay qoraaga u dhalatay dalka Turkiga ee Elli Shafak ka igu dhaliyay in aan raadraac ku sameeyo Tasawufka. Buuggaas waxa uu guud-ahaan u dhigan yahay, qaab male’awaal (iyo qaybo run ah), waxana uu isugu tidcayaa laba sheeko oo is-barbar socda, oo midkood dib innoogu celinaysa qarnigii 13aad iyo noloshii Jalaal-uddiin Ruumi iyo Shams Tabriizi, oo kan dambe loo aqoonsan yahay in uu ahaa hagihii ruuxiga ahaa ee Ruumi, sheekada kalena ay tahay mid lagu saameelay in ay dhacday xilliyadan dambe iyo weliba dhaqan ka geddisan kii dhulalka Bariga Dhexe, ama, si kale haddii aan u dhigo, carriga reer Galbeedka.
Arrinka labaad waxa uu ahaa diyaarin aan ku sameeyay kooras aan bilaabay dhigistiisa 2016kii oo ku suntanaa “Islaamka iyo Deegaanka” (Islam and Ecology) oo aan ka bixin jiray Jaamacadda Hargeysa.
In aan derso taariikhnololeedkii Ruumi, oo markii dambena igu riixday in aan culimo kale oo lagu hal qabsado tasawufka, ayna ka mid yihiin Fariid-uddiin Caddaar, Ibn Al Arabi, Nuur-uddiin Cabdaraxmaan Jaami, Junayd Al-Baqdaadi, iyo qaar kale, waxa iiga soo dhex baxay in ku-xidhnaanshaha iyo jacaylka dabiicaddu uu astaan u yahay dadka ku raadaysma tasawufka – kuwaas oo intooda badani noloshooda u habeeyaan ama raacaan qaabnololeed fudud, sidaas daraaddeedna ay noqon karaan qaar deegaanka la jaal ah, marka la barbar dhigo kuwa caydhsigooda adduunyo uu dar (sabab) u noqday dhaawacgaadhsiinta arlada iyo kheyraadkeeda dabiiciga ah.

Eebbe waa Wanaagsane, wanaaggana waa jecelyahay
Eebbe (Sarree oo korreeye) aadamaha waxa uu u abuuray “muuqaal iyo dheellitiran ka ugu fiican”[1] isla markaana Eebbe (SoK) waxa uu ka yeelay mid karaamo ama sharaf huwan[2], ammintii abuuristiisana waxa uu faray Malaa’iigta in ay u sujuudaan. Sidaas daraaddeed, in uu takrifal aan wanaagsanayn kula kaco noolaha intooda kale iyo kheyraadka dabiiciga ahba waxa ay u dhigan tahay xil-kasnimo-darro weyn. Dhinaca kalena, “Eebbe waa wanaagsane, wixii wanaagsanna waa Uu jecel yahay”[3], abuurta Eebbena, noole iyo ma-noole, waxa ay isu raacsan yihiin si ka madhan kala-dhantaalnaan, waana qurux badan yihiin.
Sida uu qabo Ibn Al-Carabi, oo lagu hal qabsado hilaadinta aragtiyaha la xidhiidha dabiicadda iyo jiraalka, quruxda ilaahiga ah (devine beauty) ee Eebbe (SoK) loogu yeedho “Wanaagsane” [Jamiil], sidoo kalena ah inuu “wanaagga/quruxda” jecel yahay, ayaa ka dhex muuqata wax kasta oo uu Eebbe (SoK) kawnka ku dhex abuuray. Abuur kastaana run-ahaan ay markhaati ka tahay sifooyinka qurxoon ee Eebbe.

Dabiicaddu dhammaanteed waa Muslim
Runta ah in dabiicadda iyo kawnka guud-ahaan ay yihiin abuurta Eebbe (SoK), isla markaana u hoggaansan yihiin rabitaankiisa (iraadadiisa) ayaa innagu hoggaaminaysa aragtida ah in dabiicaddu dhammaanteed ay tahay Muslin. Sidoo kale waxa ay dabiicaddu tahay ‘buug’ kale oo dhammays tiraya ‘Kitaabka qoran’ ama Qur’aanka Kariimka ah.
Khalaaweynta mararka qaarkood kuu saarta bannaannada, buuraha iyo dhirooka dhexdooda, waxa ay kansho (fursad) kuu siisaa in aad fool-ka-fool dabiicadda isu abbaartaan, akhridona kitaabkaas kawniga ah.
Cabdu-Raxmaan Jaami (1414-1492 CKD)[4], oo ahaa suufi iyo gabayaa reer Faaris ah, mar uu ka gabyay ku-keliyaysiga, dhex-muquurashada dabiicadda iyo samayskeeda, ahna ayaa uu sidan wax u cabbiray:
“Buugga dabiicadda ee aan daraasaynayay tan iyo yaraantaydii, oo aan bog walba si dhab ah ugu kuur gelayay, kama aanan heli wax ka duwan ‘RUNTA’, iyo astaamaheeda tooska ula xidhiidh ‘Runta’. Maxay ku kala qaybsamaan Baaxad/Qaro, Wax la taaban karo, iyo Noole?keliya in ay ku kala sugan yihiin saansaan kala duwan sida Macdan, Dhir, ama Noole? Maxaa yeelay, ‘Runtu’ waa mid uun…”
—o—
“Creation’s book I studied from my youth,
And every page examined but in sooth
I never found therein aught save the ‘Truth’,
And Attributes that appertain to ‘Truth’.
What mean Dimension, Body, Species,
In Mineral, Plant, Animal degree?
The ‘Truth’ is single, but His modes beget
All these imaginary entities.”[5]
(Cabdu-Rahman Jami)

Tusaaleyaal ka mid ah deegaanjirenimadii Suufiyiintii hore
Isna Jalaal-uDiin Ruumi gabaygiisan hoos ku qoran waxa uu ku muujinayaa waxa cilmisayniska looga yaqaanno ‘wareegga macdanta’ [nutrient cycle], oo ah meertada adduunkan korkiisa uu nooluhu iyo ma-nooluhu galaan. Waxana uu gabaygan soo socdaa xoojin u yahay runta ah in qof kasta oo dhashaa uu dhiman doono, ku noqon doono dhoobadii Nebi Aadan (NKHA) laga abuuray, ciidda nafaqayn doono, nafaqadaas qayb ka mid ahi geed nafaqayn doonto, qayb ka mid ah nafaqadii asal-ahaan ka soo jeedday qofka (ee badhkeed laga yaabo in ay geed dux u noqotay) ay sii nafaqayn doonto xawayaan (tusaale-ahaan in uu neef xoolaad daaqo), caleen daaqihiina uu cuni doono hilib cune (dad iyo dugaagba). Ha yeeshee, si ka geddisan Dahriyiinta (sida ku xusan Qur’anka)[6] aan rumaysnayn in la isa soo saari doono iyo nolol aakhiro toona, waxa uu Ruumi halkan kaga hadlayaa jidhka dadka iyo sida uu burburkiisu ula fal gelayo nooleyaasha kale (organic matter). Waxa uu u jeedaa in jidhkiisu qof-ahaan dhiman doono, se wax-taransigiisu aanu halkaas ku hadhin ama idlaalnayn, kol haddii uu gelayo meertadaas nololeed ee aynnu kor ku soo sheegnay – ilaa ammin uu Eebbe ogyahay. Ha yeeshee naftiisu samaawaadka u bixi, markaasna haddii ay tahay mid ka saxar la’ saaruqda (xaafoodka) adduunyo, ka ag dhawaan doonto ‘Shirka Sare’ ee barakaysan (mala’ ul-Aclaa/ Malaa’igta). Weliba ay naftu awoodi karto in ay xawaare ku dhaafto malaa’igta (oo looga jeedo in uu aadanuhu ka wanaagsanaan karo), dhianca kalena kuwa ugu hooseeya ka hoosayn karo.[7] Waa taas oo marka uu aadanuhu ruuxdiisa u dhiibo, isuna sadqeeyo Eebbe, waxa ay ruuxdaasi u digo rogan doontaa mid xasilloon (nafs-al-mutma’innah). Markaansa, ay degdegsanayso u laabashada Eebbe.

“I died as mineral and became a plant,
I died as plant and rose to animal,
I died as animal and I was Man.
Why should I fear? When was I less by dying?
Yet once more I shall die as Man, to soar
With angels blest; but even from angelhood
I must pass on; all except God doth perish.
When I have sacrificed my angel-soul,
I shall become what no mind e’er conceived.
Oh, let me not exist! for Non-existence
Proclaims in organ tones: ‘To Him we shall return’ “[8]
—oo—
“Anoo macdan ah ayaa aan dhintay, una doorsoomay geed,
Anoo geed ah ayaa aan dhintay, una oogsaday xayawaan ahaan,
Anoo xayawaan ah ayaa aan dhintay, una doorsoomay qof.
Maxay baan u baygagi (baqan)?Goorma ayaa aan dhimasho ku yaraan (ku nuqsaami)?
Ha yeeshee mar kale ayaa aan qof-ahaan dhiman, samaawaadkana ugu bixi la-jirka malaa’ig barakaysan;
Welibana aan malaa’igta xawaare ku dhaafi doono;
Eebbe mooyee, dhammaan cid jiraysa oo joogaysaa ma jiraan.
Marka aan huro (sadqeeyo) ruuxdiidii saxarka la’ayd,
Waxa aan u digo rogan saansaan (xaalad) aan cidna maankooda ku soo dhicin,
Haaheey, ii banneeya aan ahaado mid aan jirin!
Maxaa wacay! jiraal la’aantu waxa ay isku cabbirtaa mashdhacyo: ‘Isaga uun (Eebbe) beynnu u noqonaynaa’.

Sida aan kor ku soo sheegay, jacaylka dabiicadda iyo deegaanjirenimadu waxa ay ahaayeen laba wax oo isu barkan Suufiyaashii hore.
Meeriskan waxa aan ka soo dhex qabtay mid ka mid ah gabayadii suufigii Fariid-uddiin-Caddaar (noolaa qarnigii 13aad miilaadi) oo aan qaab tiraab ah u dhigay:
“A perfumed wood was burning and its scent
Made someone sigh with somnolent ecstasy.
One said to him: “Your sigh is ecstasy;
Think of the wood, whose sigh is misery!”
—o—
“Qoricuud ayaa gubanayay, kaddibna qiiqii carfigiisii ayaa qof ka yeelsiiyay in uu sanka ula raaco si ay ku jirto raalli-ahaansho iyo raynrayni.
Kolkaas ayaa uu qof kale ku yidhi: ‘Neefsashaaadu waxa ay u dhigan tahay beerraqid (raynrayn), bal se ka warran qoriga ay neefsashadiisu tahay murugo, taah iyo eedaad!”

Bal u fiirso meeriskan sare sida uu suufigani ugu cabbiray dareenkiisa. Haddii uu ma-noole sidaas ka yeelayo, geed qoyanna dareen jaadkee ah ayaa uu ka qabi lahaa goyntiisa ama gubiddiisa. Waxa aan muran ku jirin in uusan si dheeldheel ah u gooyeen, baahi oo u geysa mooyaane.
Dabiicaddu ma aha keliya in ay nooshahay; se si aftahannimo ku jirto ayaa ay u hadashaa.Bal mar kale u dhug yeelo sida uu Ruumi u qofaynayo dabiicadda:

“The speech of water, the speech of earth, and the speech of mud,
Are apprehended by the sense of them that have hearts”
Jalaluddin Rumi: Mathnawi 1:3279
—o—
“Tiraabta biyaha, tiraabta arlada, iyo tiraabta dhoobada, waxa ay u dhacaan (fahma) ama qabsada dareenka kuwa leh wadneyaal (nool).“

Tusaale kale waxa uu ku bixinayaa in wada sheekaysi iyo xanshashaq dhex maro abuurta kala duwan ee kawnka – ha ahaadaan noole ama ma-noole. Waxa aynnu soo qaadan karnaa xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya dhirta iyo ciidda. Dhirtu waxa ay ciidda ku sii daayaan walaxo loo yaqaan “exudates” oo sidii dheecaan ah, kuwaas oo nooleyaasha ili-ma-aragtayda ah (microbes) u sheega goorta ay howl gelinayaan qaar ka mid ah qaababka kimiko ee ay u shaqeeyaan. Macdanaha saddexda ah ee ay dhirtu u baahan yihiin si ay u koraan waa kaarboon, nitaroojiin iyo fosfor. Kaarboonku hawada ayuu ka yimaaddaa, se labada kale waxa ay ku jiraan ciidda. Intaas waxa raaca kaalinta ay caddeeda iyo biyuhu ka ciyaaraan isla falgalkaas yaabka leh:
“You yourself [the reader] know [instinctively] what words the sun, in the sign of Aries, speaks to the plants and the date palms.
You yourself, too, know what the limpid water is saying to the sweet herbs and the sapling.”
The doing of God towards all the particles of the world is like the words (spells) breathed by enchanters.
—o—
“Adiga, laftarkaaga [akhristahoow] ayaa [hoosta] ka og ereyada ay cadceeddu, markay soo gaadho Burjiga Naariya,[9] kula xanshashaqayso dhiroonka iyo sidoo kale geedtimireedka;
Laftarkaaga ayaa, sidaas oo kale, og ereyada ay biyahaha saxarka la’i ku odhanayaan geedaha qurxoon iyo kuwa soo biqla.” (6. 1068-69)

Haa! Cadceeddu marka ay soo gaadho burijiga Wanka, oo inta badan ku beegan bisha Seermaweydo, waxa ay diirisaa dhiroonka oo markaas ka fal celiya oo kora (haddii ay isla helaan roob).
Burburka iyo tayodhaca deegaanka soo gaadhaa waxa uu saamayn taban ku yeeshaa noolaha kala duwan oo ay ku jiraan dadku. Halkan waxa uu Ruumi ku xusayaa sida loo waayi doono codkii shimbirka Candaliibka (nightingale) marka ay dhirtu ubxin weydo, ayna engegaan. Waxa uu tusaalahni inna xasuusin karaa cinwaankii ay Racheal Carson u bixisay buuggeedii Silent Spring (Gu’gii Aamusnaa).

When the roses are faded and the garden is withered,
The song of the nightingale is no longer to be heard
(Rumi: Masnavi, Book 1, page 5)

Weliba gabayga Ruumi waxa uu u muuqdaa in uu ka sii xeel dheer yahay ulajeeddada Racheal Carson. Waxa uu leeyahay waxa aynnu maqlaynaa ma aha keliya heesaha macaan ee shimbirka Candaliibka u jeedinayo ubaxyada, balse mashdhacyada ay cod dheer ubxaantu adigu laftarkaaga kuugu soo celinayaan.

Offer not your nightingale songs to these roses,
For they themselves saying to you in loud tones,
(Rumi: Masnavi, Book 6, page 438)

Tasawufka iyo caleenquudashada (vegetarianism)
Waayadan dambe, marka la eego xawliga uu ku socdo tayodhaca deegaanku iyo hoos-u-dhaca kala-duwanaanshaha noole, waxa soo xoogaysanaya habdhaqanka cunno ee loo yaqaanno ‘vegetarianism’ ama ‘caleenquudashada’ oo ah in hilibka ama kalluunka looga dheeraado sababo la xidhiidha caafimaadka, rumayn (diin) ama akhlaaqeedba. Marka arrinkan loo ban dhigo raadaynta hilibcunnimadu ku leedahay tayodhaca deegaan, waxa inta badan la soo qaataa tusaalahan soo socda:
Si loo helo ama loo soo saaro hilaaddii hal kiilo badhkii oo borotiin xoolaad ah (marka la barbar dhigo hal kiilo badhkii oo borotiinta midhaha ay digirtu ka mid tahay), waxa ay qaadanaysaa 12 jibbaar dhul ah (oo xoolo ku foofaan), 13 jibbaar tamar ah oo ka soo jeedda dhir, iyo 15 jibbaar biyo ah (oo neefka xoolaha ahi cabbo). Taas ulajeeddadeedu waxa weeye in caleenquudashadu ay arlada uga dhowraarin badan tahay marka la barbar dhigo hilibcunista.
Haddaba, taariikh-ahaan, suufiyiintii hore, waxa ay ahaan jirtay dhif in ay hilib cunaan. Sheekadan soo socotaa waxa ay dhex martay Raabica al-Cadawiya oo ahayd suufiyad reer Basra ah oo noolayd qarnigii 8aad (Miilaadi ka dib), iyo Imaan Xasan al-Basri.
Raabica ayaa u baxday dhul buuralay ah. Ka dib waxa ku soo xoomay deerooyin, ri’yo, iyo dameero duurjoog ah. In yar ka dib ayaa Xasan al-Basri ku soo baxay Raabica, ha yeeshee mar Alle markii ay ugaadhi aragtay Xasan ayaa ay kala yaaceen. Xasan ayaa ay arrintani ka yaabisay.
“Maxaa ay iiga yaacayaan aniga, adigana si degganaansho leh kuula joogeen? Xasan ayaa weyddiiyay Rabiica.
Kute: “Maxaa aad maad cuntay?”
Kuye: ‘”Hilib yar oo basal lagu shiilay.”
Kute: “Baruurtoodii ayaa aad cuntay. Sideebaanay markaas kaaga yaacin?”

W/Q: Axmed Ibraahin Cawaale
aiawaleh@gmail.com

________________________________________
[1] Qur’aanka Kariimka ah: At-Tiin – 04
[2] Qur’aanka Kariimka ah: Israa’ – 70
[3] Xadiith uu weriyay Muslim # 131
[4] CKD = Tirsiga taariikhda miilaadiga ah (Ciise ka dib)
[5] Lawa’ih, a treatise on Sufism, by Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī, with a translation by E.H. Whinfield, and Mirza Muhammad Kazvini, and pref. on the influence of Greek philosophy upon Sufism”, Royal Asiatic Society (1906)
[6] ‘Waxa ay dheheen gaaladii wax kale ma jiro ee waa uun noloshannada dhaw (adduunyo), waana dhimanaynaa qaarna noolaan, waxaan waqtiga ahaynna nama dilo’ Surah: Aljaathiyah: 24.
[7] Suurah Tiin: Ayaadda 5aad.
[8] (Rumi), cited after Nicholson, Rumi, Poet and Mystic, London, 1950, p.103).
[9] Burjiga Naariya: Xilligani waxa uu inta badan galaa bisha Seermaweydo, inta ay cadceeddu ka gudbayso Burjiga (Maarj 21keeda ilaa 19ka Abriil gu’ kasta.

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